Motivation in the conventional everyday sense refers to what drives people to do the things they do, which corresponds pretty well to the psychological study of motivation. But motivation in the psychology sense not only refers to what underlies people’s behavior, but also how they seek out information, interpret information, and encode it in memory. Specifically, self-related motivations underlie much of our everyday doings and thoughts, and there are a few that psychologists study in particular. These scientists might even go so far to dub them the fundamental motives. And, surprise surprise, these can all relate to dancing and how we learn how to dance!
Basically, people like to do things and think things and find out information that makes them feel good about themselves. They prefer to read positive feedback to negative feedback and remember it better. Some argue that this motive overpowers all other ones and is the automatic one, the one that kicks in without us even trying (Sedikides). Most people think they are better than average at any given thing (driving, social skills, and so on), which is statistically impossible (Svenson, 1970). People are very accepting of positive feedback and more critical of negative feedback. Self-serving bias makes us take credit for success and blame outside factors for failure.
How self-enhancement relates to ballroom: Well, who doesn’t like getting a compliment? Whether it’s from our longtime coach or a complete stranger, getting complimented on our dancing is a fantastic feeling. Getting a compliment on hair or makeup or an outfit will more than suffice as well. Particularly when we have put ourselves out there in front of a bunch of strangers, getting confirmation that we don’t look like idiots is indeed a nice feeling. I would say most people think they are better than the average person in their lesson/class, unless they are anxious and particularly clumsy-feeling. In competition, most people probably think they danced better than the average person, and therefore deserve a callback – that’s why not getting a callback is so disappointing. It’s probably easier to remember competition successes than to remember failures, for the most part…or at least we spend more time trying to think about the successes. When we get negative feedback from a coach, we probably automatically think, “What? I don’t do that” and then have to override that impulse to fix whatever problem it is. Also, self-serving bias can definitely play a role in how we understand competition results. When we win, it’s because we danced great! When we didn’t do so well, it’s because the floor was slippery or our partner did something wrong or people kept bumping into us or the judges didn’t like our outfits. Also, even if we do badly, we socially compare downwards to make ourselves feel better, finding a standard of comparison to whom we can feel superior. “At least we were on time, unlike couple X.”
We like to find out things that confirm what we already know about ourselves. We like to think we have a good sense of who we are and seek out information that supports that idea, because we like consistency and predictability (Swann, 1985).
How self-consistency relates to ballroom: This might sound directly counter to self-enhancement, but if someone thinks they are an awful dancer, they (at least on a conscious controlled level) would prefer to hear negative feedback to positive feedback. “I’m terrible, and these people agree.” People with low self-esteem prefer negative feedback, because then they have a consistent view of themselves and get confirmation from others about their view. What’s interesting is the cognitive-affective crossfire situation – people with a negative self-view emotionally (affect = emotion) prefer positive feedback, but cognitively prefer negative feedback (Swann et al., 1987). I know, it’s twisted, but it makes sense – they have both the self-enhancement and self-consistency motives going on at the same time. Haven’t you encountered this social exchange before? “You did a great job dancing out there!” “Ugh no, I did horribly!” I’m not saying that dancers who are self-critical (which might just mean they have high standards for themselves) necessarily have low self-esteem, but perhaps they had a low evaluation of their dancing at the time, and at the time would like a compliment on one level but prefer criticism on another.
Basically this just means that we want more information about ourselves, to see where we stand. An accuracy motivation, to see if what information we have about ourselves seems to be correct. Often this ties in with the motivation of self-improvement, which I think is pretty self-explanatory. You have to know what you’re good and bad at before you can take steps to improve.
This motive I think plays the most into the learning process – we take lessons, seek feedback from more advanced dancers, and pay professionals lots of $$ to tell us how we are doing now and how we can get better. Looking at judges’ scores and scouring YouTube videos of our performance help to fulfill this motivation, to see where we stand. Practicing and staring at ourselves in the mirror for hours on end definitely help to fulfill this drive (though staring at the mirror and convincing ourselves of our innate, undeniable hotness is more in the lines of self-enhancement 😉 ).
Overall, I think the most interesting motive is self-enhancement. There are so many ways that people make themselves feel better, even if they are deluding themselves just a little bit (or sometimes a lot!). As someone studying psychology, it’s interesting when I catch myself or someone else using one of these self-enhancement strategies. Hell, it feels really good to have my dancing or my dress complimented by a rando. Didn’t get a callback? Judges didn’t see us. Or the music was weird. Or my shoes were super slippery. Obviously.
But hey, on the plus side, having these slightly positive illusions about yourself is good for happiness, mental health, and well-being in the long run, so they can’t be all that bad (Taylor & Brown, 1988). Being ever-so-slightly arrogant (or confident, self-assured, positive, whichever word you’d like to use) about yourself seems to work out well for people in the ballroom world and everywhere else.